OverviewTeaching: 25 min
Exercises: 30 minQuestions
How can I use version control to collaborate with other people?Objectives
Clone a remote repository.
Collaborate pushing to a common repository.
For the next step, get into pairs. One person will be the “Owner” and the other will be the “Collaborator”. The goal is that the Collaborator add changes into the Owner’s repository. We will switch roles at the end, so both persons will play Owner and Collaborator.
Practicing By Yourself
If you’re working through this lesson on your own, you can carry on by opening a second terminal window. This window will represent your partner, working on another computer. You won’t need to give anyone access on GitHub, because both ‘partners’ are you.
The Owner needs to give the Collaborator access. On GitHub, click the settings button on the right, then select Collaborators, and enter your partner’s username.
To accept access to the Owner’s repo, the Collaborator needs to go to https://github.com/notifications. Once there she can accept access to the Owner’s repo.
Next, the Collaborator needs to download a copy of the Owner’s repository to her
machine. This is called “cloning a repo”. To clone the Owner’s repo into
Desktop folder, the Collaborator enters:
$ git clone https://github.com/vlad/Vlad-conversion.git
Replace the URL with the correct URL from the owner.
The Collaborator can now make a change in her clone of the Owner’s repository, exactly the same way as we’ve been doing before:
$ cd ~/Desktop/vlad-conversion $ nano conversion.py $ cat conversion.py
> > # My Conversion Tools > > > > def dollars2cents(dollars): > > cents = dollars * 100 > > return cents
$ git add conversion.py $ git commit -m "Implement dollars2cents function"
[master fc7397d] Implement dollars2cents function 1 file changed, 2 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
Then push the change to the Owner’s repository on GitHub:
$ git push
Counting objects: 3, done. Delta compression using up to 24 threads. Compressing objects: 100% (3/3), done. Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 335 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done. Total 3 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0) remote: Resolving deltas: 100% (1/1), completed with 1 local objects. To https://github.com/biologyguy/conversions.git 2e763f1..fc7397d master -> master
Take a look to the Owner’s repository on its GitHub website now (maybe you need to refresh your browser.) You should be able to see the new commit made by the Collaborator.
To download the Collaborator’s changes from GitHub, the Owner now enters:
$ git pull
remote: Counting objects: 4, done. remote: Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done. remote: Total 3 (delta 0), reused 3 (delta 0) Unpacking objects: 100% (3/3), done. From https://github.com/vlad/planets * branch master -> FETCH_HEAD Updating 9272da5..29aba7c Fast-forward conversion.py | 3 ++- 1 file changed, 2 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-) create mode 100644 pluto.txt
Now the three repositories (Owner’s local, Collaborator’s local, and Owner’s on GitHub) are back in sync.
A Basic Collaborative Workflow
In practice, it is good to be sure that you have an updated version of the repository you are collaborating on, so you should
git pullbefore making our changes. The basic collaborative workflow would be:
- update your local repo with
- make your changes and stage them with
- commit your changes with
git commit -m, and
- upload the changes to GitHub with
It is better to make many commits with smaller changes rather than of one commit with massive changes: small commits are easier to read and review.
Switch Roles and Repeat
Switch roles and repeat the whole process.
The Owner push commits to the repository without giving any information to the Collaborator. How can the Collaborator find out what has changed with command line? And on GitHub?
Comment Changes in GitHub
The Collaborator has some questions about one line change made by the Owner and has some suggestions to propose.
With GitHub, it is possible to comment the diff of a commit. Over the line of code to comment, a blue comment icon appears to open a comment window.
The Collaborator posts its comments and suggestions using GitHub interface.
Version History, Backup, and Version Control
Some backup software can keep a history of the versions of your files. They also allows you to recover specific versions. How is this functionality different from version control? What are some of the benefits of using version control, Git and GitHub?
git clonecopies a remote repository to create a local repository you can collaborate on.